CFP Argumentation & Language (Switzerland)

The second edition of the conference “Argumentation & Language” will take place from 7 to 9 of February 2018 at USI – Università della Svizzera italiana in Lugano, Switzerland.

Building on the success of the first ARGAGE conference, held at the University of Lausanne in 2015, the goal of the conference is to further explore the intersections of argumentative and language practices. Scholars are therefore invited to submit proposals dealing with the interrelations between language (its units, its levels, its functions and modes of processing) and the way argumentation functions. Contributions must be related to at least one of the following five research axes:

1. Argumentation in spoken interaction
2.  Semantics and argumentation
3.  Argumentative indicators
4. Corpora annotation and argumentation
5. Rhetorical devices

Priority will be given to proposals that make their methods and analytical categories explicit and that privilege the description of empirical data collected in corpora or empirically. Submissions will be evaluated on the basis of anonymized abstracts.

Types of contributions

Individual presentation
The deadline for submission is 30 June 2017.

Panel proposals can be submitted until 30 April 2017.

Jolanta A. Drzewiecka Profile

ProfilesJolanta A. Drzewiecka is Senior Assistant Professor and Intercultural Communication Chair at the Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.  Visiting Professor, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland (Fall, 2015)

Jolanta Drzewiecka My research centers on construction of cultural, racial, and national differences in discourse.  I am particularly interested in contexts of systemic collapse and transition, regional and global integration, and rescaling of government. I focus on two areas: negotiation of belonging and public memories.

Immigrant identity: incorporation and representation

My work examines how immigrants negotiate identities and are represented by media.  I am developing  an innovative way of understanding how immigrants are incorporated within racial hierarchies that perpetuate domination and inequality (Drzewiecka & Steyn, 2009; Drzewiecka  & Steyn, 2012; Pande & Drzewiecka, under review).  With my South African collaborator, Melissa Steyn, I proposed a framework of incorporation as discursive intercultural translation based on a study of how Polish immigrants are incorporated racially within the distinct South African racial regionalism (Drzewiecka & Steyn, 2009).  We theorize translation as a creative and strategic process of meaning integration that results in immigrants’ reframing themselves to bid for inclusion and belonging in their new place.  Our concept of translation is based in postcolonial theory and highlights the complex processes whereby immigrants understand and connect new meanings and position themselves within racial hierarchies.  We extended this work to theorise how the symbolic and the material are inseparably interlaced to form immigrant identities (Drzewiecka & Steyn, 2012).   We demonstrated that Polish immigrants were incorporated and incorporated themselves in ways that supported continuing white domination in cultural, institutional and economic structures.  The most recent project extends the concept of racial incorporation by connecting identity capital and emotions to negotiation of belonging.

I also explore representations of immigrants in newspapers.  A recent paper examines how Polish post-EU accession migrants are represented in British newspapers (Drzewiecka, Hoops & Thomas, 2014).  We zero in on the role of media in legitimating the changing scales of government as well as precarious citizenship in representations of migrants in the European Union.  This is a rich area for application;  a follow up study examines the US immigration reform debate focusing on how citizenship and rights are shaped by the state adjusting to globalizing conditions (Drzewiecka, Pande & Saurbier, 2014).

Public memories

Another productive line of research centers on public memories, particularly those of racist violence.  In a recent project, I demonstrated through a psychoanalytic reading how knowledge of the past antisemitic violence has been blocked and the victims rendered unrecognisable to protect the fictions of the Polish gentile self (Drzewiecka, 2014).  Another paper examines the discourses of historical wound in media and how they are shaped and shape relations with the other. My current book project extends the psychoanalytical rhetorical approach to understand how memories of racial others recuperate and purify the nation in response to ongoing and new global challenges to national purity and exclusivity. Further, I am co-editing (with Susan A. Owen and Peter Ehrenhaus) a special issue of the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication on public memories, culture and difference.  The issue is scheduled for publication in 2016.

I had the pleasure of serving as the Chair of the International and Intercultural Communication Division of the National Communication Association, USA.

Selected publications

Hoops, J., Thomas, R., & Drzewiecka, J. A. (2015). Polish plumber as a pawn in the British newspaper discourse on Polish post-EU enlargement immigration to the U.K.  Journalism. Published online before print May 31, 2015, doi: 10.1177/1464884915585960.

Drzewiecka, J. A. (2014). Aphasia and a legacy of violence: disabling and enabling knowledge of the past in Poland. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 11, 362-381.

Drzewiecka, J. A., Hoops, J., & Thomas, R. (2014). Rescaling the state and disciplining workers in discourses on EU Polish migration in UK newspapers. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31, 410-425.

Drzewiecka, J. A., & Steyn, M. (2012). Racial immigrant incorporation: material-symbolic articulation of identities. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 5, 1-19.

Drzewiecka, J. A., & Steyn, M. (2009). Discourses of exoneration in intercultural translation: Polish immigrants in South Africa. Communication Theory, 19, 188-218.

Work for CID:

Jolanta Drzewiecka wrote KC56: Racial Incorporation and KC62: Diaspora. She was also one of the participants at the National Communication Association‘s Summer Conference on Intercultural Dialogue in Istanbul, Turkey, which led to the creation of CID.

Sara Greco Profile

ProfilesSara Greco is Senior Assistant Professor of Argumentation at the Università della Svizzera italiana (Lugano, Switzerland). Her research interests cover different aspects of the analysis of argumentative interactions, both written and oral.

Sara GrecoIn particular, she has been working on the role of argumentation in conflict resolution, specifically in relation to dispute mediation (Greco Morasso 2011, 2018, 2020) and to social controversies. In her view, argumentative dialogue can be seen as a means to solve disagreement and, thus, as an alternative to conflict.

Sara Greco has also worked on inner conflict and how people make their decisions on the basis of dialogue with themselves. She has been working in particular with the case of how international migrants make their crucial migration decisions (Greco Morasso 2013, Greco 2015). Besides, she has done research on children’s argumentation (Greco et al. 2018).

In her work, Sara Greco has developed theoretical concepts of argumentation theory, in particular framing and reframing, issue, and argument schemes (Rigotti & Greco 2019); she has equally been analysing specific cases of communicative interaction in different contexts, using methods from Discourse Analysis, argumentation and linguistic semantics-pragmatics.

Sara Greco is on and, and on her institutional website.

A selection of her recent publications includes:

Greco, S. (2020). Dal conflitto al dialogo: Un approccio comunicativo alla mediazione. Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli.

Rigotti, E., and Greco, S. (2019). Inference in argumentation: A topics-based approach to argument schemes. Cham: Springer (Argumentation Library).

Greco, S. (2018). Designing dialogue: Argumentation as conflict management in social interaction. Tranel – Travaux Neuchâtelois de Linguistique, 68, 7-15.

Greco, S., Perret-Clermont, A.N., Iannaccone, A., Rocci, A., Convertini, J., & Schär, R. (2018). The analysis of implicit premises within children’s argumentative inferences. Informal Logic, 38(4), 438-470.

Greco Morasso, S. (2015). Argumentation from analogy in migrants’ decisions. Proceedings of the ISSA Conference, Amsterdam, July 2014. Ed. B. Garssen et al.

Bijnen, E., van, & Greco, S. (2018). Divide to unite: Making disagreement explicit in dispute mediation. Journal of Argumentation in Context, 7(3), 285-315.

Greco, S., Schär, R., Pollaroli, C., & Mercuri, C. (2018). Adding a temporal dimension to the analysis of argumentative discourse: Justified reframing as a means of turning a single-issue discussion into a complex argumentative discussion. Discourse Studies, 20(6), 726–742.

Xenitidou, M., & Greco Morasso, S. (2014). Parental discourse and identity management in the talk of indigenous and migrant speakers. Discourse & Society, 25(1), 100-121.

Greco Morasso, S. (2013). Multivoiced decisions. A study of migrants’ inner dialogue and its connection to social argumentation. Pragmatics & Cognition, 21(1), 55-80.

Greco Morasso, S., & Zittoun, T. (2014). The trajectory of food as a symbolic resource for international migrants. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies, 15(1), 28-48.

Greco Morasso, S. (2011). Argumentation in dispute mediation: A reasonable way to handle conflict. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Work for CID:

Sara Greco wrote KC73: Argumentative Dialogue, and translated it into Italian.

Research Assistant/Doctorate in Intercultural Communication (Switzerland)

Open Position Announcement:
Research Assistant / Doctorate  in Intercultural Communication

The Institute for Public Communication (IPC), Faculty of Communication Sciences, at the Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) in Lugano, Switzerland,, announces a call for a Research Assistant / Doctorate in Intercultural Communication.

The candidate will join the research team of Prof. Jolanta Drzewiecka at the IPC . He/she will assist Prof. Drzewiecka in her research and teaching duties, and some associated administration (including conference organization, M.A. theses supervision, grant proposal preparation) (50%) and must develop and carry forward a doctoral project in the area of intercultural communication (50%).  Prof Drzewiecka’s research focuses on public memories, media representations of migration, and belonging. The assistant will pursue his/her doctoral projects in these or related areas.

Required qualification: a master’s degree in communication sciences, linguistics, cultural studies, sociology or related disciplines; knowledge of critical and/or cultural studies theories and qualitative research methods; fluency in written and spoken English.  Desirable qualification:  knowledge of one or more Swiss national languages.

The ideal candidate will take ownership of a project and is both a team player and independent. He/she must be flexible, entrepreneurial and dynamic. He/she must enjoy working in a multilingual and multidisciplinary environment.

The position is renewable for up to 5 years based on satisfactory performance. During this period, the appointee will undertake doctoral studies and will have the opportunity to interact with an international network of scholars in the field and become a credible member of the academic community. The research activities will be carried out at USI, where the candidate should be present 4 days a week.

Please send your application, incl. a letter of motivation (describing qualifications and doctoral project ideas), detailed CV (with names and contact information for 2 references), university transcripts, and a writing sample (5 pages, in English, ideally from an academic paper), to Prof. Jolanta Drzewiecka.

The appointment starts February 1, 2016 with a possibility of September 1, 2016 appointment. The call is open until the position is filled.

NOTE: This is the revised version, with additional information, updated October 16, 2015.

Europe-China Dialogue: Media and Communication Studies Summer School 2015 (Beijing)

Europe-China Dialogue: Media and Communication Studies Summer School 2015
Beijing, China
July 1, 2015 to July 10, 2015

After the successful experience of last summer, the China Media Observatory at the Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI) in cooperation with School of Journalism and Communication at Peking University will operate the SECOND edition of the Europe-China Dialogue: Media and Communication Studies Summer School in Beijing between July 1st and July 10th, 2015.

The program is open to the full variety of academic work in the field of communication and media studies for young scholars, PhD and graduate students who have strong academic interests, especially for those with a background in international communication, intercultural communication, Chinese/European media and culture/language studies. The Summer School aims to bring together researchers from Europe and China to debate contemporary issues in media, communication and cultural studies in Chinese and European media industry.

Inspired from the ECREA Doctoral Summer School, this summer school aims to provide: a highly qualified international setting where academics from several European countries and China will present and discuss their most recent research; and a highly supportive international setting where scholars can present their current work, receive feedback on their research projects from international experts and meet scholars and academics from other countries, establishing valuable contacts for the future.

The learning format of the Summer School is divide into three parts:
1) Lectures: each of the invited professors will have 1-2 lectures related to their research necessities. Proposed lecturers and topics will include:

European Faculty
Prof. Giuseppe Richeri, European Media Market & Public Broadcasting Service in Europe; Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland;
Prof. Emili Prado, The European Audio-visual Media Industry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain;
Prof. Pierre Musso, Modelling of imagination, innovation and creation, Télécom ParisTech/ université de Rennes II, France;
Prof. Stefano Iacus, Sentiment Analysis in Communication Studies, University of Milan, Italy;
Prof. Gabriele Balbi, Introduction to European Media History, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland;
Dr. Guido Keel, The Current State and Future Development of Journalism In the Western World, Zurich University of Applied Science, Switzerland;
Dr. Sharif Mowlabocus,
Mastery of the Swipe: Smartphone Use and the Connection to Neoliberalism and Late Capitalism: A Psychodynamic Approach , University of Sussex, U.K.
Prof. Jia Wenshan, Intercultural Communication,  Dialogic Civilization and the Construction of an Inclusive World Order, Champman University, United States.

Chinese Faculty
Prof. Lu Shaoyang,
The Film Policies and Market in China, Peking University;
Prof. Wu Jing, Critical Approach to Media Culture Studies, Peking University;
Prof. Xu Jing, Media and Public Opinion in China, Peking University;
Prof. Wang Xiuli, “Made in China” and national image, Peking University;
Prof. Guo Zhenzhi, Chinese Media: History and Current Development, Tsinghua University;
Prof. Jin Jianbin, Social Media Literacy in the Case of China, Tsinghua University;
Prof. Shi Anbin, China’s Charm Campaign: Opportunities and Challenges, Tsinghua University;
Prof. Jiang Fei, The Chinese Version of “Soft Power” from the Intercultural Perspective, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

2) Student Feedback Workshops: participating students will present their research projects and receive structured, qualified and multi-voiced feedback on their work from Summer School lecturers and scholars, allowing students to structurally improve the quality of their academic work and stimulate their further research interests;

3) Media Dialogue: Two dialogues with media experts from European and Chinese media organization will be set in the Summer School. Director of Austrian Press Council (Mr. Alexander Warzilek, Vienna) and expert of China Radio International (Dr. Huang Kuo, Beijing) are invited to the 2015 Summer School.

We enrolled 30 students in 2014, including young scholars, PhD and graduate students from China, U.K., Sweden, Canada, Italy, and Singapore. Moreover, we plan to enroll the same number of students in 2015. Ideally, the composition of selected students will be 15 from European institutions and 15 from Chinese institutions.

To apply
All participants are required to email an abstract (about 500 words) of their research projects before May 1st, 2015. The confirmation will be sent by May 10th, and the full draft of research projects should be sent before June 15th, 2015.

Admission fee and payment
550 euros per student including accommodation for 10 days nearby the Campus, all lunches and two dinners (welcome and farewell) and the city visiting tour. 350 euros per student for those who do not require accommodation.

Scholarship awards of 200 euros will be given to the two best student participants, and they will get the chance to be recommended to the ECREA Summer School 2016 as well as the Swiss Government Excellence Scholarships Programme.

China Media Observatory at USI  China Media Observatory aims at the systematic monitoring of the evolution of the system of media and communications in China according to the main economic, political as well as social and cultural dimensions. In function of the activities it carries out, the Observatory encourages the exchanges for teaching and research purposes and establishes collaboration agreements with European universities, which have started permanent research activity on media in China, as well as with Chinese universities, that are interested in collaborating and exchanges with our university in the scientific and teaching field. 

School of Journalism and Communication, Peking University Peking University is a pioneer in modern Journalistic education in China. In 1918, Peking University started the first Journalistic course and founded the Journalism Research Institute that was the first of its kind in China. In 1952, Peking University opened the first Journalism Studies program since the founding of the People’s Republic of China and the new School of Journalism and Communication was established in 2001. Founded in 1898, Peking University was the first national comprehensive university in China and became a centre for progressive thought in China across time. Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi and many other leaders of China all gained professional experience here. In 2014, The Chinese University Alumni Association and China Education Center considered it as No.1 among national universities. Internationally, both the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the World Reputation Rankings recently placed Peking University at 45th position worldwide.

Programme Contacts
Coordinator in Europe: Zhan ZHANG
Coordinator in China: Prof. Jing XU

Peter Praxmarer Profile

ProfilesPeter Praxmarer, lic.oec.publ. (University of Zurich, 1977) and Docteur ès sciences politiques (The Graduate Institute, Geneva, 1984), is, since 2003, Executive Director of EMICC (European Masters in Intercultural Communication), a network of ten European universities specializing in intercultural communication, at Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) Lugano, Switzerland.

Peter Praxmarer
Praxmarer (right) with students of the 2014 Paris Eurocampus in the Archives nationales de France, Paris

For a number of years he taught international politics and relations in the United States (Temple University, University of Pennsylvania, Brown University and University of Rhode Island). He also was a consultant for UNITAR and the United Nations University on issues of social development, and has worked in the private sector (publishing, agriculture, art and antiques). During the wars in ex-Yugoslavia he participated in a fact-finding and assessment mission visiting UN peacekeeping forces in the Krajina region (Croatia), and served as Field and Training Coordinator with the OSCE Mission in Kosovo, for which he has also developed training programs in the field of democratization and good governance.

His main research focus is on epistemological issues (conceptualizations) in IC studies and the social sciences in general. His teaching is mainly on conceptualizations of “The Other”, as well as on intercultural communication in international organizations, and in particular peace communication in post-conflict and emergency contexts. He also works on academic cultures.

During the past ten years he has taught and lectured at more than two dozen universities in Europe and the US, and supervised a number of Bachelor and Master theses for students at different universities.

He also gives workshops and training courses in intercultural communication for different publics, including teachers at various levels, tourism professionals, immigration officials, paramedical personnel, healthcare professionals and managers.

NOTE: Peter Praxmarer passed away quite suddenly on November 5, 2017. He was a good friend to CID and will be sorely missed. A few concrete results of our frequent conversations follow. He wrote Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue #39: Otherness and the Other(s), translated it into both German and Italian, compiled a reader with study materials on intercultural communication competence, and prepared a poem, Languages of Peace. He wrote a guest post on Charlie Hebdo and intercultural dialogue, and responded at length to a guest post by Dominic Busch on refugees in Germany. During a Skype call with me, he came up with the concise definition of intercultural dialogue that was turned into CID Poster #3.
– Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz

Università della Svizzera italiana job ad

Università della Svizzera italiana
Faculty of Communication Sciences

The Institute for Public Communication of the Faculty of Communication Sciences invites applications for a full time tenure track position as Assistant Professor of Intercultural Communication.

The Faculty of Communication Sciences is characterized by its emphasis on research and commitment to the highest teaching standards. It offers a young and dynamic context which is highly international and interdisciplinary, studying Communication from many complementary viewpoints, both as disciplines and as fields of application.

Research and teaching carried out within the Institute for Public Communication cover different fields, ranging from public communication and political communication to social marketing, communication law and psychology. So far intercultural communication has been part of the public communication area. It has now been decided to develop this growing field as a specific area of research and teaching within the Institute.

The new chair of intercultural communication will be multi-disciplinary in nature and address both the theoretical and practical dynamics linked to intercultural communication. The core areas of interest are intercultural competence, communication in and with intercultural communities and organisations as well as the challenges of internationality and plurilingualism. The research orientations should be developed in collaboration, and where possible in synergy, with the other research projects underway in the Institute and the Faculty.

We look for candidates in particular from the field of communication sciences, but also from political science, sociology, public administration, anthropology, linguistics and other related fields. A strong commitment to research and solid methodological grounding should be demonstrated by publications in international peer-reviewed journals and other significant publications in the field. A demonstrated ability to address the theoretical and practical issues of intercultural communication will also be valued. Prior professional experience in intercultural contexts, whether in government, administration, NGOs or international organisations, as well as multilingual proficiency are significant asset for this position.

Job description and responsibilities
The successful candidate will be expected to:
*promote and develop the area of intercultural communication within the Institute for Public Communication;
*teach introductory courses at the Bachelor level and more specialized courses at the Master level, notably as part of the Master in Public Management and Policy (the teaching workload encompasses 9 ECTS for an assistant professor);
*develop and carry-out a research agenda centred on Intercultural Communication, including the obtention of research grants, the publication of academic contributions and the active participation to and contribution in international academic forums;
*assume the academic responsibility of the Executive Master in Intercultural Communication and of the Eurocampus programme;
*co-ordinate research assistants’ activities and supervise PhD candidates;
*participate actively in the work of the Faculty Council and related ad-hoc bodies notably within the Institute for Public Communication. The candidate could, for example, take the direction of the Laboratorio di Studi Mediterranei.

The ideal candidate will have:
*a Ph.D. in Intercultural Communication or in a field related to intercultural communication;
*a documented contribution to research in the field, notably through publications and
conference presentations;
*adequate experience of teaching academic courses on the subject at various levels;
*experience of designing, developing and coordinating educational programmes in the field;
*experience of, or at least the willingness to address the issue of intercultural communication in the Swiss context;
*professional experiences in intercultural contexts;
*active participation in the field’s international research and educational networks, as well as demonstrated leadership and commitment to service to the institution and to the profession.

The application is for an assistant professor rank position.

Since USI aims to increase the percentage of women in research and teaching, women academics are particularly encouraged to apply.

Residence and language
The professor should reside in Ticino (Italian-speaking part of Switzerland); he or she is expected to be present at the university for no less than four days a week. The University’s graduate programmes are mainly taught in English, while Bachelor classes are taught in Italian. Fluency in Italian, while beneficial, will be required from the second year. Knowledge of other languages, in particular an official language of Switzerland (French or German), is a valuable asset for this position.

Required documentation
Applicants should submit:
*a letter of application addressed to the Dean of the Faculty
*a detailed CV/resume and list of publications, together with documentation of relevant academic qualifications, teaching and professional experience
*copies of a minimum of 3 and maximum of 10 publications of relevance for the position

Please send copy of the application in digital form.

Application received by end of September 2014 will be given priority.
Please send your complete application file to the Faculty Dean:
Prof. Lorenzo Cantoni
Facoltà di scienze della comunicazione
Università della Svizzera italiana
Via Giuseppe Buffi 13
CH-6904 Lugano

For further information, please contact the Director of the Institute for Public Communication
Prof. Bertil Cottier

Università della Svizzera italiana 2014

WLH and PraxmarerFrom May 20-30, 2014, I had a wonderful invitation to stay in Cimo, Switzerland (a village just outside Lugano), with Peter Praxmarer, the executive director of the European Master in Intercultural Communication (EMICC), which is coordinated through the Università della Svizzera italiana (known in English as the University of Lugano). He also collaborates with, and teaches for, the Master of Advanced Studies in Intercultural Communication (MIC), as well as a number of other European universities.

My goal was to learn more about the EMICC, an intensive and international semester-long study of intercultural communication jointly offered by ten European universities since 2002. This program is a model of international collaboration for graduate education, and an innovative form of what in the USA is called “study abroad,” ensuring that students not only learn about intercultural communication at a theoretical level, but also practice it. We were able to discuss not only some of the logistics of this program, but also shared interests in intercultural communication more generally, as well as inventing future possibilities for collaboration.

While in Lugano, I was able to connect also with Prof. Bertil Cottier, Director of the Institute for Public Communication at USI. Trained as a lawyer, one of his current interests is in data protection and new technologies. As it turns out, the Institute will be conducting a search for a faculty member specializing in intercultural communication shortly – keep an eye on this website for the details.

I also met with Alexandra Stang, a graduate student at the University of Duisburg-Essen (in Germany) currently studying the Intercultural Campus platform, “an international university network created for intercultural learning.” She was in town to interview Peter Praxmarer, and took the opportunity to interview me as well.

Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz, Director
Center for Intercultural Dialogue

U Lugano (Switz) postdoc

The Institute of Communication and Health at the University of Lugano (Università della Svizzera italiana), Switzerland invites applications for a Post-doctoral Fellow position in the Faculty of Communication Sciences. Funding is provided through research grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation focused on addressing problems arising from limited health literacy and patient empowerment focusing particularly on misuse of prescription medications (P.I.: Dr. K. Nakamoto) and vaccination refusal (P.I.: Dr. P. Schulz). The Fellowship is available for three years and salary is competitive and dependent on experience and qualifications.

We are particularly interested in applicants with backgrounds in communications, psychology, and related disciplines. Application review will begin April 15th, 2013 and continue until the positions are filled. The new Fellow will be joining an active research group including three core faculty members, four post-doctoral fellows, and eight current Ph.D. students. The Institute of Communication and Health has a growing international reputation for its research on health communications and has active collaborations with several universities in Switzerland, the European Union, and the United States.
Interested applicants should send a letter of interest describing research and career interests, curriculum vitae, undergraduate and graduate transcripts, and at least two academic letters of recommendation to:

Ms. Teresa Cafaro
Institute of Communication and Health
Università della Svizzera italiana
Via Giuseppe Buffi 13
6904 Lugano


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