Miami University job ad

Miami University invites applications for Professor and Chair of a new Department of Global and Intercultural Studies.  The new unit will develop new curricular, research and public outreach initiatives in global and intercultural studies, as well as incorporate established undergraduate majors and minors in American Studies, Asian/Asian American Studies, Black World Studies, East Asian Studies, European Area Studies, International Studies, Jewish Studies, Latin American Studies, Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, and Women’s, Gender and Sexuality Studies. The appointment start date is negotiable and may be as early as August 2015.

Specific duties and responsibilities include: teaching in area of expertise, leading new curriculum development and implementation; recruitment and professional development of faculty (including promotion and tenure recommendations); leading the development of governance and administration policies for the new unit; recommendations to the Dean for faculty teaching and workload assignments, and for faculty and unclassified staff merit-based salary increases; budget oversight; hiring and supervision of staff; management of departmental office operations; communication of University and College policies and practices to the department; representation of the department to the College, University, and broader publics.

Candidates should have a teaching and scholarly record commensurate with the appointment of a full professor and demonstrated administrative experience to lead the development of this new interdisciplinary department. We seek a leader with strong creative and collaborative skills, and a vision to develop new initiatives that may include new majors, graduate certificates or programs, and research institutes.  Candidates should have a Ph.D. and be nationally/internationally recognized scholars and excellent teachers in at least one of the following areas: global studies, transregional or transnational studies, area studies, identity studies, social equity, gender and sexuality studies. We seek a leader with a strong commitment to diversity, who will foster innovative teaching methods that promote engaged learning in the 21st century; a commitment to teaching undergraduate courses at all levels; and innovative scholarly and public outreach activities. Submit a letter of interest and curriculum vitae online.   Three letters of recommendation are required; should be sent directly to Associate Dean Renée Baernstein. Direct queries about the search to the search committee co-chairs: Prof. LuMing Mao or Associate Dean Renée Baernstein. Review of applications will begin on April 10, 2015 and continues until position is filled.  Miami University, an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer with smoke- and tobacco-free campuses, is committed to a multicultural environment and strongly encourages applications from minorities, females, veterans and individuals with disabilities. Miami’s Annual Security and Fire Safety Report with information on campus crime, fires, and safety is available online. Hard copy available upon request. Employment will require a criminal background check according to University guidelines.

Arizona State University job ad

Assistant Professor – Communication  (AV #11072) at Arizona State University

The Communication Program at Arizona State University (downtown Phoenix campus) seeks a tenure-track Assistant Professor in cultural communication. The College of Letters and Sciences (CLS) offers an exciting and innovative interdisciplinary communication degree program. The major offers three areas of emphasis: Law and Community Advocacy, Communication and Culture, and Communication, Technology & Society. We seek interdisciplinary human science scholars who will take advantage of opportunities to make interdisciplinary connections with ASU faculty in the humanities and social sciences. Essential functions: teach a 2/2 load with a significant research agenda; contribute to curriculum development; deliver excellent in-class undergraduate instruction; eligible to apply for graduate faculty status in M.A. and Ph.D. programs at ASU’s Tempe campus;  conduct research, publishable in premier academic venues; internal/external committees participation; assist and/or develop grant proposals; and service required appropriate to rank.

PhD in Communication by time of hire with a specialization in one or more of the following areas: philosophy of communication with an emphasis in culture, cultural embodiment and performance, race and sexuality, critical intercultural communication, or urban culture; 2 years college-level teaching experience appropriate to rank; demonstrated interest in integrating technology and face-to-face pedagogy; an established record of research; evidence of excellent oral and written communication skills.

Experience teaching in multicultural environments; demonstrated commitment to multidisciplinary scholarship and pedagogy, community engagement, place­based inquiry, and use­ inspired research consistent with the New American University mission.

Application deadline is March 13, 2015 at 5:00pm PST; if not filled, applications will continue to be reviewed every Friday thereafter until the search is closed. It is estimated that initial application review will begin on March 14, 2015.

To be considered for the assistant professorship position applicants must compile the following as one complete PDF file and include: 1) cover letter, 2) curriculum vita, 3) one-page teaching statement, 4) copies of student evaluations from two communication courses at postsecondary level, and 5) complete contact information for three professional references. Email complete application as one complete PDF file with the position in the subject line (Asst. Prof. Communication– AV11072) to DO NOT send your information separately because it will be considered incomplete. Incomplete applications will not be considered.

Academic year contract: 8/16/2015 to 5/15/2016. Background check required prior to employment. The College of Letters and Sciences (CLS) serves students on three campuses of Arizona State University and is home to seven faculties with more than 180 faculty members. More than 3,200 CLS undergraduate and graduate students are pursuing degrees in the humanities, social and natural sciences, and mathematics. To learn more about CLS, visit our website at

Applicant must be eligible to work in the United States; ASU CLS will not be a sponsor for this position.  For ASU’s full non‐discrimination statement, please see ACD 401; the Title IX statement can be found here.

EIUC job ad: E.MA. Programme Director (Italy)

The European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation (EIUC) is seeking a qualified individual for the position of E.MA Programme Director for the academic year 2015/2016. The position, which is being posted at the level of university professor or senior researcher, involves a combination of teaching, organisation, and various academic and practical responsibilities connected with the E.MA programme. Working under the instructions of the E.MA and EIUC governing bodies and in cooperation with the EIUC Secretary General, the candidate selected will assume primary responsibility for the academic coordination of the E.MA programme and the E.MA secretariat a.y. 2015/16. He or she will furthermore be involved in the development of new academic and research-based activities in the context of the EIUC.

Functions and tasks
The E.MA Programme Director will work as member of the permanent EIUC staff, based in Venice – the Lido. Tasks will include the following:

To coordinate the advanced planning of the E.MA programme;
To oversee in the daily management of the E.MA programme – including the first semester field trip, which in recent years has been going to Kosovo – with a view to maintaining the excellent standards and academic coherence of the first semester courses;
To establish advance contact with academic responsibles, lecturers and experts, and assist the academic responsibles and other lecturers in carrying out the scientific and educational programme;
To supervise and coordinate Teaching Assistants in the performance of their tasks;
To supervise  the work of the E.MA secretariat
To supervise the internship programme and the fellowship programme
To organise and teach seminars introducing one of the core disciplines (law, political science, international relations) of the E.MA programme;
To set up and lead working groups and workshops incorporated in the academic programme;
To oversee the assessment of student assignments;
To exercise a proactive role in identifying and rectifying problems of an academic nature;
To take a proactive role in the development of additional academic activities in the context of the EIUC; this may include initiating and facilitating research collaboration, academic publication, and the organisation of training courses, seminars and conferences.

Doctorate in a relevant discipline (e.g. law, political science, international relations), teaching experience, good publication record, team-working ability, administrative experience. Excellent knowledge of English.

The selected candidate will be expected to take up the position no later than beginning of September 2015. Salary negotiable, depending on qualifications. Deadline for sending applications is March 15th, 2015.

Please send a cover letter and a curriculum vitae in English to Florence Benoit-Rohmer, EIUC Secretary General, Monastery of San Nicolò, Riviera San Nicolò 26, Venezia-Lido 30126, Italy, by email  and in cc to Claudia Zanchi.

McMaster University job ad (Canada)

Department of Communication Studies and Multimedia
Asper Chair in Communications

The Department of Communication Studies and Multimedia at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, is seeking an outstanding scholar to serve as the Asper Chair in Communications at the rank of Full or Associate Professor, beginning July 1, 2015. The successful candidate will be a scholar with an exceptional record of research, teaching and service, holding a PhD in communication or related fields. She or he will have demonstrated leadership in her/his field, a strong record of research funding (and/or potential for funding), strengths in mentorship, and a commitment to fostering a collaborative environment with students, colleagues, and/or community members. Preference will be given to candidates whose cutting-edge research bridges communication studies and multimedia.

Expectations for the position will involve maintaining an active research profile, competing for research grants and other external funding opportunities, participating actively as a graduate supervisor, and contributing to the department’s teaching and administration. The successful candidate will provide leadership in research, teaching, and supervision in the context of a dynamic and highly interdisciplinary department, whose faculty work in communication and media studies, digital humanities and multimedia arts practice, and communications management. The committee welcomes applications from candidates whose research complements or extends faculty research.

Housed within the Faculty of Humanities at McMaster University, the Department of Communication Studies and Multimedia is home to four programs: the MA in Communication and New Media, the Master of Communications Management, and two BA Honours programs, in communication studies and in multimedia. The establishment of a PhD program is a university priority.

McMaster University is a globally recognized research-focused student-centred university, dedicated to supporting creativity, innovation, and excellence through integrity, quality, inclusivity, and teamwork. The university is committed to fostering relationships with the community through a wide range of community engagement initiatives. McMaster is located in Hamilton, Ontario, a diverse city of over 500,000, with strengths in healthcare, knowledge work, and a vibrant arts and culture community. Hamilton is in close proximity to the Greater Toronto area as well as the Niagara region.

The successful candidate will be appointed July 1, 2015 to the Department of Communication Studies and Multimedia at the rank of Full or Associate Professor.

Applicants should submit electronically a CV, research statement, teaching statement, and cover letter to cmstdir AT Applications must be received by February 28, 2015. Applicants may be contacted for letters of reference at a later date.

American University of Kuwait job ad

College of Arts & Sciences
Electronic Media and Media Studies

The American University of Kuwait (AUK) is seeking terminally qualified faculty committed to excellence in teaching, scholarly research, and service. American education or teaching experience is preferred as is evidence of research activity. Outstanding communication skills, cultural sensitivity, and effective use of classroom media and technology are expected. Faculty rank will be determined by the candidate’s degree and previous employment history. Successful candidates will teach undergraduate classes to majors and non-majors of diverse cultural backgrounds, conduct research, participate in student advising, honor office hours, and serve on faculty committees.

Electronic Media (Position Code No. 14-201- ICA 12): Rank Assistant Professor or higher, a full-time position in electronic media. The ideal candidate should be able to teach a variety of classes in radio, television and digital media. The candidate will also possess the necessary expertise required for the development of a new track in electronic media to be housed under the Department of Communication and Media. The ability to teach classes in media studies is a plus. Ph.D. in mass communication is required.

Media Studies (Position Code No. 14-202- ICA 12): Rank Assistant Professor or higher, a full-time position in media studies to teach introductory and advanced courses in the department. The ideal candidate should be able to teach courses in communication research methods and communication theory. The ability to teach courses in PR/advertising is also desirable but is not required. The ideal candidate would also aid in curriculum development and program assessment and carry out other tasks assigned by the Chair. Ph.D. in mass communication is required.

Application packages are to be submitted electronically to (attachments must not exceed 10 MB per e-mail). The package should contain the following:
1) Cover letter, detailing the candidate’s specific interest in AUK, and how the candidate’s past experience provides a suitable basis for performance in the position for which they are applying;
2) A current CV;
3) Statement on research and service and statement of teaching methodology, including curricular development that the individual has initiated and executed;
4.) Copies of teaching evaluations if available;
5) The names and addresses, both electronic and postal, of three referees.
6) Two recent publications /two writing samples;

In completing your application, please quote position code number. Incomplete applications will not be considered. For full consideration, applications should be received by February 14, 2015.

Radboud University job ad (The Netherlands)

Faculty of Social Sciences
Professor of Communication Science

We are seeking a colleague who will extend or complement our existing areas of research and teaching in communication science, especially the domain of news and information. Candidates at the Associate Professor level who are ready for the next step in their career are encouraged to apply. Candidates with a background in domains other, or broader, than news and information are also encouraged to apply.

Your main responsibility will be to consolidate the domain of mediated news and information transfer in research and in teaching. Positioned within the program of Communication Science, this domain focuses on the production and content and, particularly, the reception of news and information. The leading question is how government, news organizations and other institutions can inform citizens in today’s media environment where information is around us, everywhere and all the time, and where the role of media users and their social networks is increasingly important.

Communication Science is part of the Faculty of Social Sciences, which is one of the largest faculties at Radboud University. The faculty’s ambition is to become one of the top social science institutes in Europe, providing high-quality research and study programs that rank among the best in the Netherlands.

For more information on the vacancy and on the application procedure, please visit our website. Application deadline: 9 February 2015

US Air Force job ad: Professor of Cross-Cultural Communication

Department: Department of the Air Force
Agency: Air Education and Training Command
Job Announcement Number: AD-SPAATZ-11-15
SALARY RANGE: $80,000.00 to $100,000.00 / Per Year
OPEN PERIOD: Friday, December 5, 2014 to Monday, January 5, 2015
SERIES & GRADE: AD-1701-00
POSITION INFORMATION: Full Time – Excepted Service Term NTE 3 YEARS
DUTY LOCATIONS: 1 vacancy – Montgomery, AL View Map
WHO MAY APPLY: United States Citizens
The mission of the United States Air Force is to fly, fight and win…in air, space and cyberspace.

The U.S. Air Force Culture and Language Center at Air University invites applications for the position of Professor of Cross Cultural Communication. The successful applicant will join a growing inter-disciplinary department that develops cross-culturally competent military personnel. The primary purpose of this position is to teach, research, and conduct scholarly service that increases airman’s cross-cultural competence. Specifically, the incumbent will provide expertise on inter-personal cross-cultural communication and develop/deliver general, transferable frameworks that students can employ anywhere they are deployed.

WHO MAY APPLY: **ALL APPLICANTS MAY APPLY** Click here for more information on additional eligibilities. You will have the opportunity to select one or more eligibilities during the process, if applicable. **Air Force is not responsible for erroneous eligibilities “you – the applicant” list or fail to list**

TRAVEL REQUIRED: Occasional Travel, Travel may be required
RELOCATION AUTHORIZED: Yes, PCS costs may be paid
*You must be eligible to obtain a Secret security clearance
*You must be a U.S. citizen to qualify for this position
*Travel and relocation expenses may be paid
*Position may require a pre-employment drug test
*You may be required to do some travel

The primary duties of this position are on teaching to include developing curricula; leading seminars; facilitating on-line programs and delivering lectures; conducting faculty development; advising student research; and assessing student learning. While the focus of the position is on graduate-level professional education, the incumbent will also instruct a large on-line course at the undergraduate level and contribute scholarly guidance to the development of pre-deployment training. Research will include designing and conducting original scholarly studies and publishing results in academic and professional fora. Service will include vetting organizational products; academic committee work; and establishing/maintaining professional relationships with colleagues across and outside of Air University.

Air University is a Level V post-secondary institution accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. We seek an individual with research and instructional expertise in cross-cultural communication. Applicants must show evidence of teaching and research in a post-secondary institution. Applicants must have relevant academic experience commensurate with the requirements to teach senior US and international military and civilian leaders. The position also requires a demonstrated ability to design, develop and evaluate graduate-level course materials and instructional methodologies. The position requires a broad knowledge of military and academic cultures, knowledge of academic research methods and demonstrated skill in writing and editing for publication. The ability to lead diverse teams and communicate effectively to a wide range of audiences is also a requirement. The position requires a broad knowledge of joint/service military thought and theory to include the elements of national power, international relations, and military capabilities and limitations.

A Ph.D. is highly desired; a master’s degree is required and must be in an academic discipline relevant to anthropology, communication, or sociology.

Academic rank for the position is open but the focus is at the Assistant and Associate Professor and Administrative Faculty level.

To qualify based on education, submit copy of your transcripts or list of courses with credit hours, major(s), and grade-point average or class ranking. We will be unable to return these to you. Education must be accredited by an accrediting institution recognized by the U.S. Department of Education.

Education completed in foreign colleges or universities may be used to meet the requirements. You must show proof the education credentials have been deemed to be at least equivalent to that gained in conventional U.S. education program.  It is your responsibility to provide such evidence when applying.

You must be a U.S. citizen to qualify for this position.
In order to qualify for this position, you must be able to obtain a Secret security clearance.
You may be required to do some travel.

This job is being filled by an alternative hiring process and is not in the competitive civil service. This is an Administratively Determined position in the excepted service.

* The position will be an initial three year appointment with a one-year probationary period, with the potential for continued reappointment for additional 3-5 year terms.

The materials you send with your application will not be returned.

Your latest résumé will be used to determine your qualifications.

To determine if you are qualified for this position, your résumé will be reviewed and compared to your responses to the assessment questionnaire. Applicants, who disqualify themselves, will not be evaluated further.

To apply for this position, you must provide a complete Application Package which includes: Your Résumé

2. Additional Required Documents (see Required Documents section below)

The complete Application Package must be submitted by 11:59 PM (EST) on Monday, January 05, 2015. For all details, see the original posting.

University of Jyväskylä job ad (Finland)

Professor of Journalism at University of Jyväskylä

The University of Jyväskylä is a nationally and internationally significant research university and an expert on education that focuses on human and natural sciences. The University is Finland’s leading expert in teacher education and adult education, as well as the major exporter of education. The Faculty of Sport Sciences is the only one in the country.

Department of Communication in the Faculty of Humanities is currently seeking to recruit staff to the position of Professorship in Journalism, based on a contract of employment to be filled as of January 1, 2016, in effect until further notice.

The Faculty of Humanities in the University of Jyväskylä studies culture, arts and traditions as well as languages and communication in organizations and societies. One of the Faculty’s special characteristics is comparative, researcher oriented and multi-method research and education. The originality, multidisciplinarity and innovativeness in the field of Humanities are apparent in e.g. the many research projects connected with technology.

The definition of the Faculty’s core areas has taken account of the high quality of both research and education, the scope of the activities as well as the National educational responsibilities. Regarding the five core areas in the University of  Jyväskylä, the Faculty of Humanities is strongly associated with three (Education, Learning and Teaching in the Future; Languages, Culture and Processes of Change in the Society; Human Technology).

The professorship in Journalism is located on the University’s strategic core areas of Language, Culture and Social Change Processes and Human Technology. Within the research conducted at the Department of Communication, the professorship is located on the core areas of Communication, media and journalism in globalizing and multicultural societies and Working Life Communication and Communication Professions in Networked Society.

The duties of the professor include developing interdisciplinary research and education in accordance with the strategic objectives of the discipline, the Department and the University of Jyväskylä. This includes active participation in applying for supplementary research funding, launching and implementing research projects. The professor is expected to participate in teaching and supervision activities both on basic and postgraduate level and also to take part in the Department’s administration. In addition, the professor is expected to engage in high quality national and international publishing activity and to participate actively in international research and education work.

The professor is specifically expected to have expertise in the areas related to the future of journalism, such as media and journalism in a networked and multicultural society, effects of social media on journalism and its relationship with the audience, journalistic innovations, as well as journalism and globalization.

The duties and qualification requirements for the position of the professor are stipulated by the University of Jyväskylä Regulations. The selected person is required to have a full command of Finnish language. When considered appropriate, the university may grant exemption from the language proficiency requirements. The teaching languages in the professorshipin Journalism are Finnish and English. A good command of English is required and a proficiency to teach in English will be considered beneficial.

The professor’s job-specific salary component is based on the job demands levels 8 – 11 (4617,75 €/month – 6803,52 €/month) according to the salary system concerning teaching and research staff at universities. In addition, a personal performance-based salary component amounting to the maximum of 46,3% of the job-specific salary component is also paid.

The appointment procedure for filling the vacant professorship provides more information on the duties involved and on the ways of meeting the qualification requirements, as well as on the application and appointment procedure itself. The appointment procedure is available on the Faculty webpage.

For additional information, please contact Dean Minna-Riitta Luukka, and Head of the Department, Professor Epp Lauk.

The application documents should be drawn up in English and include the following documents:

1. a motivation letter;

2.  a Curriculum Vitae (CV), complying with the guidelines for responsible conduct of research and following, where possible, the template CV for researchers by the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity;

3.  a brief (2-3 pages) written account of the applicant’s scientific research, merits in scientific activities and in supervision of research work including an account of acquired complementary research funding and the responsibilities related to the research conducted through such funding and in international activities;

4.  a brief (2-3 pages) written account of the applicant’s pedagogical training and teaching merits (teaching portfolio);

5.  a brief (2-3 pages) written account of the applicant’s international cooperation  and activities in the field of societal interaction;

6.  a numbered list of all scientific and other publications with which  the candidate wishes to prove his or her eligibility and merits for the post.

A list of publications drawn up according to the regulations of Academy of Finland;

7.  a maximum of 10 publications, numbered in accordance with the above list (if the publications cannot be sent electronically, they are asked to be arranged in four packages for the external evaluators and mailed to the University Registry Office, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland);

8.  a brief (2-3 pages) written account of how the applicant plans to develop the research, teaching and societal interaction related to the domain of the post in the Faculty of Humanities.

Please submit your application at the latest on February 1, 2015 using the online application form.

Nanyang Technological U job ad: Information & Communication Technologies (Singapore)

Full Professor: Information and Communication Technologies and Social Life
Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)
Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information

Young and research-intensive, Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore) is the fastest-rising university in the world’s Top 50 and ranked 39th globally. NTU is also placed 1st amongst the world’s best young universities while its Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information ranks 6th internationally among communication and media programs. The Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information seeks a Full Professor with a strong record of high-quality research published in leading journals and a commitment to mentoring the next generation of communication and information scholars.

We are casting a broad net, looking first and foremost for an outstanding scholar to join our dynamic faculty. The ideal candidate has an active research programme in or closely related to the study of information and communication technology (ICT) in online relationships, technology-assisted education, online marketing, organisational communication, knowledge management, ambient intelligence, and/or digital law and ethics.

The Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information is a vibrant global leader in communication and information research and education.  Recent hires and a high level of support reaffirm the School’s preeminence in the disciplines under its aegis. Singapore is a vibrant cosmopolitan city/state with good weather, low crime, rich cultural attractions, exceptional food, and proximity to numerous points of interest in Southeast Asia.

To apply, please refer to the Guidelines for submitting an Application for Faculty Appointment and send your application package [consisting of cover letter, curriculum vitae, personal particulars form, a statement of current and future research interest, teaching statement, effectiveness of teaching (If any), selected publications, and the names of 5 referees] by 31 December 2014 to:
The Search Committee
Nanyang Technological University
Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information
31 Nanyang Link, WKWSCI Building
Singapore 637718

Applications sent via email should include the reference “Application for Professor in ICT and Social Life” in the subject line. Enquiries about the position can be addressed to the above email.

Initial review of applications will begin in mid-December 2014 and applications must be received by 31 December 2014. The candidate is expected to start work in July 2015. Only shortlisted candidates will be notified.

Indian Institute of Management job ad (India)

Assistant, Associate and Full Professor at Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad

The Department of Communication at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIM-A) seeks communication scholars for a full time faculty position (equivalent to tenure track) in the area of organizational communication. Depending on the applicant’s qualifications, he or she would be appointed as a professor, associate professor or assistant professor.

This position requires a commitment to a strong research agenda and excellence in graduate-level teaching which will enable the applicant to meet the institute’s criteria for confirmation of appointment at the appropriate time.

Applicants should have a Ph.D. degree in Communication or a closely related discipline by the start of appointment. Candidates who are close to completing their PhD (all but dissertation) and demonstrate sound record of teaching and research, may be considered for the position of assistant professor. Interested applicants are requested to send their CV and recent publications/conference papers in electronic form to:

We are also happy to entertain applications for a visiting position.

We would be happy meet applicants attending the forthcoming National Communication Association Annual Convention in Chicago. Those interested may write to Prof Vaibhavi Kulkarni to schedule a meeting.

About IIM-A:
The Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) is an autonomous School of Management in India. Set up in 1961, with initial academic support from the Harvard Business School, IIM-A assumed leadership in management education in India. It has maintained this stature over the past 50 years and has broken into the top 20s in international ratings. Its flagship Post Graduate Programme (PGP) in Management was set up in 1964. IIMA also offers a highly rated one year Pos Graduate Program in Management for Executives (PGPX), a top ranked program in Agri Business Management, and a Doctoral Programme in Management. IIMA promotes high quality research, providing the best in class support to facilitate the same. Faculty are encouraged to build international collaborations. IIMA enjoys a strong connect with the industry and Government in India, offering a rich repertoire of relevant management problems and policy issues for research.

About Ahmedabad:
Ahmedabad is a lively city of more than five million, located in the Western region of India. Just an hour’s flight from Mumbai and Delhi, Ahmedabad is also well connected by air to other cities in India and abroad. It has direct rail and road connections to practically all the major cities in the country.