Grant opportunity – Global connections


The State Department’s: Global Connections and Exchange Program just issued a Request for Grant Proposals (RFGP) that involves digital storytelling, social networking, and project-based learning. This is a competition for the Global Connections and Exchange Program, the Department’s “virtual exchange program,” meaning that most of the interaction between foreign and U.S. students takes place online.

The Youth Programs Division, Office of Citizen Exchanges of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs announces an open competition for two or three projects under the Global Connections and Exchange Program (GCE) in the following countries worldwide: Bolivia, Botswana, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Samoa, Tajikistan, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam, and the United States. Public and private non-profit organizations meeting the provisions described in Internal Revenue Code section 26 USC 501c(3) may submit proposals to facilitate online and face-to-face exchanges between overseas schools and/or community youth organizations and counterparts in the United States.

The Global Connections and Exchange Program utilizes technology to create a U.S. presence in areas where many citizens may have little opportunity to travel or participate in exchange programs. Through web chats and discussion boards, foreign teachers, students/youths and youth leaders participate in dialogues with U.S. peers about their lives, families and communities. In addition, theme- based curriculum projects will increase understanding of issues relevant to both U.S. and overseas participants and harness their energies to effect positive change in their communities.

For details, please take a look at their Request for Grant Proposals, under Global Connections and Exchange Program. Multiple other, potentially relevant programs are also listed in that call for proposals.

Books available for review

The following books are available for review at the Journal of Language and Social Psychology.  If you are interested in reviewing, please email the book review editor (Jake Harwood:, including brief indication of which book(s) you wish to review, any relevant qualifications/conflicts of interest, and a mailing address. A copy of the book is provided, and reviews are expected within 3 months of receipt of the book.

Language and sexism (Mills) — Cambridge
A history of communications (Poe) — Cambridge
Emotions in multiple languages (Dewaele) — Palgrave
Anti- and Pro-Social Communication (Kinney & Porhola) — Lang
Cultural processes (Leung et al.) — Cambridge
Conversation and gender (Speer and Stokoe) — Cambridge
English around the world (Schneider) — Cambridge
Dialogue: The mixed game (Weigand) – Benjamins
Social psychology and discourse (McKinlay & McVittie) — Wiley
Variation in indigenous minority languages (Stanford & Preston) — Benjamins
Clinical pragmatics (Cummings) — Cambridge
Sign languages (Brentari) — Cambridge
The social psychology of English as a global language (McKenzie) — Springer
Language, migration, and identity (Goebel) – Cambridge
Investigation in sociohistorical linguistics (Trudgill) — Cambridge
The language of statutes (Solan) – Chicago
Language, gender, and sexual identity (Motschenbacher) — Benjamins
Motivation and second language acquisition (Gardner) — Lang
Predicative minds (Bogdan) – MIT Press
Jake Harwood, Professor & Interim Head
Department of Communication
1103 E. University Blvd.
University of Arizona
PO Box 210025
Tucson, AZ 85721-0025
ph: 520-626-8681
fax: 520-621-5504

Media and Citizenship call for papers

Please note: The deadline for the special issue on media and democracy for the Taiwan Journal of Democracy has been extended until Monday, April 18. The complete call follows below and is attached.

Taiwan Journal of Democracy
Call for Papers: Media and Citizenship Special Issue

Scholars have long noted the need for a well-informed electorate to maintain healthy democracies. Media performances, in many instances, have implications for the quality of democracies and their societies. An established body of scholarship in media studies and elsewhere has addressed such issues as media contribution to democratic governance. Much less empirical research examines connections among media, media systems and citizenship, including the rights, responsibilities and privileges associated with belonging to particular nations or communities, as well as associated values, identities and processes working to reinforce or transform them.

This special issue of the Taiwan Journal of Democracy is an invitation to bridge that gap. As many countries move toward more democratic forms of governance, the articulation of various dimensions of citizenship has import for the quality of democracies, but has not been fully explored in studies of democracy and democratization, as Guillermo O’Donnell has noted (See his lead article in Taiwan Journal of Democracy, Vol.3, No.2, December 2007). We use citizenship in a broad sense here, including formal rights and accompanying responsibilities in terms of a nation-state, but also dimensions reaching into often-overlooked dimensions of citizenship-including civil, social, cultural or environmental, among others-as well as what some have termed the emergence of a global civil society, or post-national citizenship following the spread of globalization.

This call for papers is intended to explore the interface of citizenship with media, building on other work on media and political engagement. Papers here may explore conceptual and analytical bridges to such key notions as agency, identity, deliberation, practice, civic interests and expression, or civic culture, among others. Please note this call is not region specific.

Key questions remain regarding interactions of dimensions and conceptualizations of citizenship with society, including regarding the formation, erosion or transformation of citizenship and citizens. How do media work to explore the limits of citizenship, of belonging or exclusion, of public and private spheres, of diversity among citizens, or in the transformation from non-citizen to citizen, and vice-versa? As Manuel Castells and Silvio Waisbord have asked, as demarcations between states, civil society and their citizens shift, what are the implications for our understandings of citizenship and the role of communication? Peter Dahlgren discussed media’s key roles in terms of shaping components of civic agency and culture; what are the observed cases of those formulations? How do citizens’ encounters with mediated content shape identity formation, public opinion, civic awareness, among others? As citizens struggle to resolve conflicts in democratic, non-democratic or democratizing societies, how does media performance connect? In rapidly transforming technological contexts, what are the implications for articulation or realization of citizenship at various scales?

Guidelines & Timeline
Full-paper proposals of empirical research (maximum 10,000 words, including references, footnotes, tables and figures) will be considered for the special issue. Papers should follow the Journal’s style and writing guidelines and editorial policies, which can be found on its website here ( Because of deadline considerations, only English-language manuscripts will be considered. The extended deadline for paper submission is April 18,, 2011. Authors will be notified by July 15, 2011, regarding the outcome of peer reviews. Final revised manuscripts for publication will be due Sept. 15, 2011. The tentative publication date for the issue will be December 2011.

Documents should be sent via email to co-editor Juliet Pinto. A title page including a 150-word abstract, relevant contact information and a brief biological sketch should be sent as a separate file. Manuscripts should include only the working title as a header on each page, and all identifying information should be removed.

Special Issue Co-Editors

Dr. Juliet Pinto
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Journalism & Broadcasting, SJMC
Florida International University
North Miami, FL  33181
(305) 919-4404

Dr. Sallie Hughes
Associate Professor
Dept. of Journalism
School of Communication
University of Miami
Coral Gables, FL  33146
(305) 284-8163

Patricia O. Covarrubias

Patricia CovarrubiasPatricia O. Covarrubias (Ph.D. University of Washington, 1999) is Associate Professor and Director of the M.A. Program in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  My previous careers include work as a broadcast journalist for KCRA-TV (NBC affiliate in Sacramento, California) and owner of OCELOTL, a consulting company providing presentation skills to US and Japanese business persons.

My academic research focuses on understanding and describing how local cultures influence people’s ways of communicating and vice versa, and on describing how culturally-grounded communicative practices reflect and create a unique life for groups of people.  Ultimately, I am interested in the influence of culture and cultural diversity in the activities and events of everyday life across a variety of contexts.   My research goals include contributing to the ethnography of communication and to language and social interaction approaches.  Further, my aim is to contribute to cultural and intercultural communication, metaphors as communication, cultural/intercultural communication in health contexts, and the much understudied communicative aspect of communicative silence.  In whatever context, my professional passions and research impetus are driven by my personal ideals for achieving social inclusivity and justice, improving institutional (and other) contexts, more peaceful living, richer multicultural experience, and greater benefits from our human socio-cultural distinctiveness.

In the area of communicative silence I am interested in exploring silences as “generative” rather than “consumptive” enactments.  For example, I have studied silence as a generative means for perpetuating, particularizing, and/or protecting culture.  To this research I would like to add uses of silence to enact social resistance for purposes of emancipation.  Also, I am interested in studying the kinds of social worlds people create when competing culturally situated silences collide.  For example, using American Indian examples, I have taken a critical look at silence enactments that reveal what I call “discriminatory silence” within the context of the college classroom.  In future work, I hope to explore the silencing of women who practice orthodox religions, particularly to not exclusively, in college contexts.  The study of communicative silence is a much under-studied aspect in the field of communication, among other academic fields, and my goal is to contribute to centralizing its importance in studies about human communication.

My past research includes ethnographic investigation of the ways of speaking of native Mexican construction workers and the ways they use pronominal address to create interpersonal webs that in turn enabled them to achieve workplace cooperation.  This work was the focus of my doctoral dissertation, which subsequently was published as a book under the title, Culture, Communication, and Cooperation: Interpersonal Relations and Pronominal Address in a Mexican Organization.

In 2014-2015 I was one of nine professors selected for the first ever Teaching Fellows program at UNM. As part of my commitment to this program I am studying some unexplored reasons why so many Latino students drop out of college at undergraduate and graduate levels. Using double bind theory I am looking at potentially contradictory messages about college within Latino families. This project also involves designing creative writing assignments to help students manage their double bind realities and persist in accomplishing their goals of graduating from college.

Another current research project involves problematizing the concepts of respect and respeto (respect in Spanish) as they are understood in the applied context of immigration discourses. This study argues that respect and respeto are not necessarily equivalent and, thus, serve as loci for sociocultural misunderstandings and alienation. Because my research commitments embrace continuing work with Mexican/Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) ways of communicating, potential new directions consist of inquiry into the emotional impact of undocumented immigration on behalf of Mexican women.  This project would help address the complicated impact of a contemporary social problem that affects the health, health care, and clinical practices enacted in New Mexican communities.

Publications & Other Productivity

Covarrubias, P. (2002 Culture, communication, and cooperation: Interpersonal relations and pronominal address in a Mexican organization, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Boulder, CO. (Soft cover edition 2005)

Covarrubias, P., & Windchief, S. (2009) Silences in Stewardship: Some American Indian College Students Examples.  The Howard Journal of Communications, 20, 4, 1-20.

Covarrubias, P. (2008). Masked Silence Sequences: Hearing Discrimination in the College Classroom. Communication, Culture & Critique, 1, 3, 227-252.

Covarrubias, P. (2007). (Un)biased in Western theory: Generative silence in American Indian communication. Communication Monographs, 74, 2, 265-271.

Philipsen, G., Aoki, E., Castor, T., Coutu, L., Covarrubias, P., Jabs, L., Kane, M., & Winchatz, M. (1997). Reading Ella Cara Deloria’s Waterlily for cultured speech. Iowa Journal of Communication, 29, 31-49. (order of authorship beyond Philipsen was selected at random)

Chapters in edited volumes:
Covarrubias Baillet, P.O. (2009). The Ethnography of Communication. In Littlejohn, S. and K. Foss (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (pp. 355-360). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Covarrubias Baillet, P.O. (2009). Speech Codes Theory. In Littlejohn, S. and K. Foss (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (pp. 918-924). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Covarrubias, P. (2005). Homemade talk: Language, identity, and other Mexican legacies for a son’s intercultural competence. In Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz (Ed.), From generation to generation: Maintaining cultural identity over time (pp. 29-47). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Philipsen, G., Coutu, L. M., & Covarrubias, P. (2005). Speech Codes Theory: Revision, Restatement, and Response to Criticisms. In William Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about communication and culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. (order of authorship beyond Philipsen was selected at random)

Covarrubias, P. (2000). Of endearment and other terms of address: A Mexican perspective. In M. W. Lustig and J. Koester (Eds.), AmongUS:  Essays on identity, belonging, and intercultural competence.  New York: Longman.

Covarrubias, P. (January 2006). The findings from my invited research presentation, “Defining success: Overhauling our assumptions,” were included in the published conference proceedings, Redefining Student Success: The Challenges and Implications of Extending Access, published by The College Board.

Covarrubias, P., & Turner, M. (Spring 2006). Cultural Codes in Communication, a video production. This video produced on DVD, conceived by Patricia Covarrubias and produced by UNM undergraduate student Mike Turner, served as promotional and teaching tool at a communication codes conference at the University of Washington in May 2006.

World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue

The Government of Azerbaijan is organising a “World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue”, to be held in Baku from 7 to 9 April 2011. The initiative has the support of the Council of Europe, including the North-South Centre, UNESCO, the UN Alliance of Civilizations and ISESCO. Building on previous events on this theme held in the Azerbaijani capital – known as the “Baku process” – and on the corpus of work developed by the stakeholder organisations in recent years, the Forum highlights the fact that intercultural dialogue is one of the most pressing challenges in the world today.

The Forum will address the conceptual, governance, policy and practical aspects of the challenge of intercultural dialogue. It will tackle issues such as the barriers to dialogue and the diverse contexts in which it can be pursued. It will also provide an opportunity to share good practice and launch new initiatives. A wide range of practitioners and experts in the field of culture will attend the Forum, from global leaders and public figures to prominent intellectuals and activists. The synergy between political leaders and officials, experts and practitioners will be encouraged by the scope for informal networking organised around the event.”

(Original from

Global Xchange

“Global Xchange is a six-month exchange program which gives young people from different countries a unique opportunity to live and volunteer together, to develop and share valuable skills and to make a practical contribution where it is needed in each local community.

In 2010, the first-ever multilateral Global Xchange connected youth and community activists from six countries: USA, France, UK, South Africa, Sierra Leone and Rwanda. The multilateral exchange was broken in two phases for the two age groups, focused on shorter-term professional development exchanges and longer volunteer placements.

First, community leaders from the six countries went to Durban, South Africa, January 17 to February 6, followed by an exchange in Belfast, Northern Ireland from March 7 to 27. Members of the adult exchange will be placed at local organizations to job shadow, exchange best practices, and explore cross-cultural approaches to serving at-risk youth. The US participants were selected from five Los Angeles nonprofits: Street Poets, Create Now, Reach LA, Homeboy Industries, and LA’s BEST. Stay tuned for videos and blog posts from the LA participants.

In the second phase, groups of 18-24 year-olds from each country will volunteer for three months in Durban and then for three months in Belfast between June and December.”

For further information, see their website.

International discources about audiences


Discourses about Audiences: International Comparisons
Deadline:   May 1, 2011

We seek proposals from media scholars to study the representations of audiences in non-western societies and pre-modern Europe. We use “western” to indicate culture rather than geography. In that sense, the term contrasts to all societies not based upon Western traditions, including not only “eastern” societies but also societies south of the equator.

We plan to publish the studies in special issues of journals and as an edited book, in multiple languages. We also plan to organize an international conference where the authors will present and discuss their work.

In our books, The Citizen Audience and Audiences and Publics, we have explored representations of audiences and the categories used to characterize them. These explorations have been within the context of modern democracies in Western Europe and North America. In Western discourse, audiences have been variously considered crowds, publics, mass and consumers, active or passive, additive or selective, vulnerable and suggestible or critical and creative, educated or ignorant, high or low brow, and characterized differently on the basis of their presumed race, class, sex and age.

These debates and these categories sometimes have been adopted and applied to audiences in non-Western cultures. The conjoined terms “audiences and publics,” for example, have begun to be used by scholars across the globe. But there is no reason to assume that such Western categories and associations apply, or apply in the same way, in non-western societies. At a time when global and regional media (satellite, television/radio, recording, mobile phone, internet) saturate even remote populations and cultures, we have no comparative empirical studies to reveal what categories are indigenous to individual non-western cultures, and to record  how they differ and change.

Consequently our goal is to bring together research from across the globe, to investigate whether the terms associated with audiences in western Europe and North America actually fit the indigenous discourses on audiences in non-Western cultures. Each culture likely has a different and interesting history. We think that such a comparative study of discourse on media and audiences could bring new insights into global media as well as Western discourse and scholarship on media and audiences, and be of immense value to government policymakers and media practitioners as well. Moreover, it will be an opportunity for non-Western worlds to speak about themselves, unfiltered through Western concepts.

The project will explore specifically non-Western languages and cultures, and as a whole, will compare their discourses on audiences. In this globalized world this will sometimes be a marginal distinction, given the bleeding of Western ideas through borders and cultural boundaries. We would like applicants to go beyond non-Western incorporations of Western terms about audiences that accompanied their adoption of media technology and texts, to explore their discourses on indigenous practices and their audiences. With this foundation, then applicants would investigate how indigenous discourses represent media audiences as these media spread through these societies.

From all applicants, we will select 10-15 scholars to research discourses in their proposed culture and language, looking at these both before and since their contact with Western culture and the spread of twentieth and twenty-first century media. We expect to include:

1. Studies on discourses in major languages of the world, e.g. Chinese, Hindi, Bengali, Arabic, Urdu, etc.,

2. Studies on cultures and languages less integrated into globalization and more remote from Western influence, and

3. A study of a major medieval European culture and language before democracy and publics became associated with audiences.

Applicants should be fluent in the language and generally familiar with the media/audience history of the culture they propose to study. For their research, we wish contributors to study representations in that culture and language, examining its historical development, in whole or part, of discourses as media are introduced into that culture through the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, with special consideration to the lexicon used to characterize media audiences. Junior as well as senior scholars are welcome, as long as each demonstrates his/her capabilities for this research.

Proposals should be in English and include a preliminary research plan of no more than 3 single-spaced pages, specifying the cultural/linguistic context and describing the plan of research. as well as current vitae of the applicant(s). Send proposals as email attachments to both and, no later than May 1, 2011.

We look forward to reading your proposals.

Richard Butsch, Professor of Sociology, American Studies, and Film and Media Studies, Rider University, USA

Sonia Livingstone, Professor of Social Psychology, Department of Media and Communications, London School of Economics,  UK

Todd L. Sandel


Todd Sandel is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Macau. He was formerly based at the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma. From 2007-2008 he was a Fulbright Scholar and Senior Researcher, affiliated with National Chiao-Tung University in Hsinchu, Taiwan and studied “Transnational Families” in Taiwan. He is currently the Vice Chair of the Language and Social Interaction Division of the National Communication Association, and Secretary of the LSI Division of ICA. From 2006-2007 he was the President of the Association for Chinese Communication Studies. He also was the recipient of a two-year research grant from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation, from 2002-2004, and studied Mother Tongue Preservation and Language Ideologies in Taiwan and the U.S. From 1991-1996 he was a faculty member of the English Department of Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan. Finally, since 2009 he has taught a four-week summer class for the University of Oklahoma on Intercultural and Chinese Communication on the campus of Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

His research interests include intercultural communication, family communication, language perceptions and ideologies, identity formation, and the ethnography of communication. Most of his research has been conducted in rural areas of Taiwan and aims to understand how cultural values and practices are communicated cross generationally in a changing environment. His most recent work, supported by a Fulbright grant, looks at how marriages involving Taiwanese male spouses and Southeast Asian or mainland Chinese female spouses are constituted and maintained. He also works with graduate students who look at intercultural issues and challenges across a range of contexts, such as Muslims in Europe, Hispanics in the U.S., Japanese international students in the U.S., Lebanese Americans, Chinese students, and Indonesian young people.

His work has been published in a number of scholarly journals, including the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Language in Society, Research on Language and Social Interaction, Narrative Inquiry, Ethos, Parenting, Journal of Family Communication, Journal of Contemporary China, Social Development, and Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. His most recent project is work on a book in progress that will show how transnational or cross border families are one of the unintended outcomes of globalization and demonstrate the intersection of traditional cultural practices and novel personal agency using the tools of globalism.

One of the goals of the Center for Intercultural Dialogue is to help researchers connect with one another across international boundaries. This is one of a series of posts describing a particular researcher, focusing on research interests. Click on the Category term “Researcher profile” (bottom left of any page on the site) to view all profiles posted to the site. If you are a Communication researcher and would like to be profiled on the site, send information to

Postdoctoral fellow-University of Denver

Postdoctoral Lecturer, University of Denver

The Department of Communication Studies grants the B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees. The graduate program is focused on three areas of inquiry: Culture and Communication, Interpersonal and Family Communication, and Rhetoric and Communication Ethics. The area of Culture and Communication investigates the communicative constitution and intersection of difference in its various codifications as culture, race, class, religion, ethnicity, nationality, gender and sexual orientation. Its vision is to promote an ethic of inclusivity, racial and social justice, reciprocity, and mutual transformation in the encounter of difference. Courses reflect this emphasis, focusing on the social and performative construction of identity, the politics of representation, performances of affect, identity, and community and vernacular and embodied rhetorics, all informed by, critical, feminist and queer perspectives on cultural communication.

Given faculty research and teaching foci we are particularly interested in applicants who have teaching and research interests in Communication, transnationalism, diaspora, and/or migration. Scholars with research and teaching foci in the areas of African diaspora studies, citizenship studies, and diaspora studies, and/or queer diaspora studies are particularly welcome. We seek to participate in the process of preparing recent Ph.D. recipients for tenure track positions and careers in academia. A central component of this position is mentoring; thus, a faculty mentor will be assigned to our new colleague. Eligible applicants are individuals who have received the Ph.D. in Communication no earlier than May 2008. The person hired will be expected to teach six courses over three quarters (two courses a quarter).

The Postdoctoral Fellow will contribute to the University’s Common Curriculum and the major of the department of Communication Studies. Given these needs, in consultation with the Dean’s Office, the following courses are likely possibilities.

Teaching Description:
* First Year Seminar  (1) : Special topic course and advising for first year students. (Title and content to be determined by the Fellow the Department, and the Dean’s Office.)
* Ways of Knowing Class (2 or 3): For undergraduates, for instance, COMN 2220, Race and Popular Culture and COMN 2210, Gender and Communication. (Title and content to be determined by the Fellow the Department, and the Dean’s Office.)
* Advanced Seminar (2 or 3 Classes): For advanced undergraduates, for instance ASEM 2509, Communication and the Production of Culture, or a new ASEM focused o the candidates specific interest. (Title and content to be determined by the Fellow the Department, and the Dean’s Office.)

Ph.D. in Communication no earlier than May 2008.
Experience teaching at a College or University level desired.

To be considered an applicant, you must submit your application, C.V., cover letter. list of references, and scholarly publications online. Please also send three letters of recommendation:

Bernadette Calafell
University of Denver
2000 E. Asbury Ave.
Sturm Hall, Suite 200
Denver, CO 80208

Review of applications will begin March 15th, 2011 and continue until the position is filled.

The University of Denver is committed to enhancing the diversity of its faculty and staff and encourages applications from women, minorities, people with disabilities and veterans. DU is an EEO/AA employer.

Please see our extensive benefit package at

Job ad-Gonzaga University

Gonzaga University’s MA program in Communication and Leadership Studies seeks a tenure-track assistant professor to begin Fall of 2011. We seek candidates interested in communication theory and praxis with excellent teaching skills. In its sixth year, the Program has attracted more than 500 students who take courses either on campus or on-line. The program has a strong interest in global and ethical aspects of communication.

We seek candidates who have research interests and teaching ability in the area of community, communication, and social change. This area includes non-profits, collaborative decision-making, global and local movements, and multi-platform media in the service of community. The person will also teach the Theorizing Communication course, and the Communication Thesis or Project course. We seek a dynamic individual who can both understand the balance of the curriculum and help to guide its growth and quality. Responsibilities include teaching campus based and online MA classes in the Department, advising campus and online students, serving on Department and School committees as needed, and an active research agenda in the areas of the position. Open Date: Review of applications begins March 25th and is open until filled.

To apply or view the full position description, please visit our website at .  Application review begins March 25, 2011. The required application materials include, a letter of interest, a curriculum vitae (CV), a statement of teaching philosophy, and three recommendation letters. References should email their letters of recommendation to whereupon letters will be uploaded to your online
application. For online application assistance, call 509-313-5996. For questions regarding the position, contact Kathy Gustafson, Program Assistant, at <> .

Gonzaga University is a Jesuit, Catholic, humanistic institution and is therefore interested in candidates who will contribute to its distinctive mission. Gonzaga University is an AA/EEO employer committed to diversity. An offer of employment will be contingent on background verification of an earned doctorate in communication or a closely related discipline.