Why and how do we remember past atrocities and human rights violations? What is the role of memory sites in social reconstruction, transitional justice and democratisation? How do memory sites shape communities, societies, identities and nations? As witnesses and testimonies of abuse and horror, memory sites aspire to build reflection, teaching and learning, critical memory and non-repetition. Memory is dynamic and constantly evolving, so memory sites function as places where to look at the past to better understand and shape the present and the future of a society and its approach to human rights. As “sites of conscience” drawing on history lessons, memory sites stimulate dialogue and healing, and inspire citizens’ action. This MOOC focuses on the role of memory sites in their crucial interplay with historical trauma, the reconciliation process, the chosen methods for dealing with the past, as well as with nation building dynamics and the shaping of societal identity.